Leaders and Heroes Bibliography

This bibliography is a list of the sources we have used in the process of researching for profiles and topics. 

Angela Davis

‘Angela Davis facts for kids’, Kiddle: https://kids.kiddle.co/Angela_Davis. [accessed: 1 July 2020]

‘Angela Davis’, Britannica Kids: https://kids.britannica.com/students/article/Angela-Davis/310936. [accessed: 1 July 2020]

Annie Lee Cooper

Annie Lee Cooper – Black History Month – The Stallion. (n.d.).[Online].Available at: https://bpjhstallion.com/11809/uncategorized/annie-lee-cooper-black-history-month/

Annie Lee Cooper – Digital SNCC Gateway. (n.d.).[Online].Available at: https://snccdigital.org/people/annie-lee-cooper/

Claudia Jones

Davies, C. B. (2007). Left of Karl Marx: The political life of black communist Claudia Jones. Duke University Press.

100greatblackbritons.com. (2019). 100 Great Black Britons – Claudia Jones. [online] Available at: https://100greatblackbritons.com/bios/claudia_jones.html. [19 June 2020]

Desmond Tutu

Desmond Tutu Biography – Encyclopaedia of world biography. (n.d.).[Online].Available at:

https://www.notablebiographies.com/Tu-We/Tutu-Desmond.html [accessed: 3 July 2020]

Desmond Tutu Biography – Biography online. (n.d.).[Online].Available at: https://www.biographyonline.net/spiritual/desmond-tutu.html [accessed: 3 July 2020]

Fred Hampton

‘Fred Hampton’, Spartacus Educational.[Online].Available at: https://spartacus-educational.com/USAhamptonF.htm. [accessed: 1 July 2020]


Huey P. Newton

The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica (2018). Huey P. Newton | Biography, Black Panthers, & Facts. In: Encyclopædia Britannica. [online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Huey-P-Newton.[ accessed: 14 June 2020]

‌National Archives. (2016). Huey P. Newton. [online] Available at: https://www.archives.gov/research/african-americans/individuals/huey-newton. [accessed: 19 June 2020]

Jane Matilda Bolin

McLeod, J. A. (2011). Daughter of the empire state: The life of Judge Jane Bolin. University of Illinois Press.

Encyclopedia.com. (2019). Jane Matilda Bolin | Encyclopedia.com. [online] Available at: https://www.encyclopedia.com/people/social-sciences-and-law/law-biographies/jane-matilda-bolin [accessed: 6 September 2020].

Kofi Annan

Dewar, D. (2007). The Best Intentions. Kofi Annan and the UN in the Era of American World Power.

Meisler, S. (2008). Kofi Annan: A man of peace in a world of war. Wiley.

Traub, J. (2006). The best intentions: Kofi Annan and the UN in the era of American world power. Macmillan.

www.goodreads.com. (n.d.). Kofi Annan Quotes (Author of Interventions). [online] Available at: https://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/275494.Kofi_Annan. [accessed 13 September 2020]

Kofi Annan – Secretary General (2017). Kofi Annan. [online] Biography. Available at: https://www.biography.com/political-figure/kofi-annan.[ accessed 12 October 2020]

Malcolm X

Ducksters.com. (2019). Biography for Kids: Malcolm X. [online] Available at: https://www.ducksters.com/history/civil_rights/malcolmx.php. [ accessed: 19 June 2020]

‌Britannica Kids. (2000). Malcolm X. [online] Available at: https://kids.britannica.com/students/article/Malcolm-X/275635. [accessed: 20 June 2020]

Malcolmx.com. (2019). Malcolm X. [online] Available at: https://www.malcolmx.com/.[accessed: 20 June 2020]

Marcus Garvey

Biography. (2018). Marcus Garvey. [online] Available at: https://www.biography.com/activist/marcus-garvey. [accessed: 25 June 2020]

Britannica Kids. (n.d.). Marcus Garvey. [online] Available at: https://kids.britannica.com/kids/article/Marcus-Garvey/390023 [Accessed 8 July . 2020 ].

Martin Luther King Jr.

National Geographic Kids. (2019). Martin Luther King facts | National Geographic Kids. [online] Available at: https://www.natgeokids.com/uk/discover/history/general-history/martin-luther-king-facts/. [accessed:27 June 2020]

‘Martin Luther King Jr. Biographical’, The Nobel Prize: https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/peace/mo/king/biographical/ [accessed: 1 July 2020]

History.com Editors (2009). Martin Luther King, Jr. [online] HISTORY. Available at: https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/martin-luther-king-jr. [ 29 June 2020]

‌National Geographic Kids. (2019). Martin Luther King facts | National Geographic Kids. [online] Available at: https://www.natgeokids.com/uk/discover/history/general-history/martin-luther-king-facts/. [accessed29 June 2020]

Patrice Lumumba

Britannica Kids. (n.d.). Patrice Lumumba. [online] Available at: https://kids.britannica.com/students/article/Patrice-Lumumba/275554. [accessed: 19 July 2020]

#www.notablebiographies.com. (n.d.). Patrice Lumumba Biography – death, school, young, information, born, house, time, year. [online] Available at: https://www.notablebiographies.com/Lo-Ma/Lumumba-Patrice.html [accessed 8 August 2020].

Shirley Chisholm

National Women’s History Museum. (2015). Shirley Chisholm. [online] Available at: https://www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/shirley-chisholm. [ accessed: 23July 2020]

History.com Editors (2018). Shirley Chisholm. [online] HISTORY. Available at: https://www.history.com/topics/us-politics/shirley-chisholm. [ accessed: 24 July 2020]

Steve Biko

Pityana, N. B. (2008). Reflections on 30 years since the death of Steve Biko: A legacy revisited.

Biography. (2014). Steve Biko. [online] Available at: https://www.biography.com/activist/steve-biko.[accessed: 25 August 2020]

Stokely Carmichael

Biography.com – Stokely Carmichael Playlist (2018). Stokely Carmichael. [online] Biography. Available at: https://www.biography.com/activist/stokely-carmichael. [accessed: 1 September 2020]

Spartacus Educational. (n.d.). Stokely Carmichael. [online] Available at: https://spartacus-educational.com/USAcarmichael.htm [accessed: 4 September 2020]

The Mino of Benin

Alpern, S. B. (2011). Amazons of Black Sparta: The women warriors of Dahomey. NYU Press.

Dash, M. (2011). Dahomey’s Women Warriors. [online] Smithsonian. Available at: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/dahomeys-women-warriors-88286072/. [accessed: 2 September 2020]

Toussaint Louverture

‘Britannica Kids. (n.d.). Toussaint Louverture. [online] Available at: https://kids.britannica.com/kids/article/Toussaint-Louverture/399990 [Accessed 13 July 2020].

Black History Month 2019. (2008). Toussaint Louverture: The First Successful Slave Revolt Leader – Black History Month 2019. [online] Available at: https://www.blackhistorymonth.org.uk/article/section/history-of-slavery/4324/.[accessed 17 July 2020]

Wangari Muta Maathai

Du Toit, L. J. (2019). Evaluating The Life Of Wangari Maathai (1940–2011) Using The Lens Of Dark Green Religion.

Cstraight Media – http://www.cstraight.com (2009). Biography | The Green Belt Movement. [online] Greenbeltmovement.org. Available at: https://www.greenbeltmovement.org/wangari-maathai/biography. [ accessed 25 September 2020]

http://www.cstraight.com, C., 2021. Taking Root Documentary | The Green Belt Movement. [online] Greenbeltmovement.org. Available at: <https://www.greenbeltmovement.org/wangari-maathai/taking-root-documentary> [accessed 8 October 2020].

William Cuffay

libcom.org. (n.d.). The Story of William Cuffay, Black Chartist. [online] Available at: https://libcom.org/history/story-william-cuffay-black-chartist [accessed 8 July 2020]

www.bbc.co.uk. (n.d.). BBC – History – William Cuffay. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/cuffay_william.shtml [accessed 8 July 2020]

Heroes and Heroines

Charlotte E Ray 

Blakemore, E. (n.d.). Charlotte E. Ray’s Brief But Historic Career as the First U.S. Black Woman Attorney. [online] HISTORY.

 Available at: https://www.history.com/news/charlotte-e-ray-first-black-woman-attorney. [accessed: 23 June 2020] 

‌Wikipedia. (2020). Charlotte E. Ray. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlotte_E._Ray [accessed 9 July 2020].‌

Elizabeth Eckford 

Elizabeth Eckford. Wikipedia.[Online].Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Eckford [accessed: 25 June 2020]

Blakemore, E. (2018). The Story Behind the Famous Little Rock Nine ‘Scream Image.’ [online] HISTORY. 

Available at: https://www.history.com/news/the-story-behind-the-famous-little-rock-nine-scream-image. [accessed: 24 June 2020]

‌Staff, B. (2017). “Little Rock Nine”: 60th Anniversary of Central High Integration. [online] Biography.

 Available at: https://www.biography.com/news/little-rock-nine-60th-anniversary. [accessed: 24 June 2020]

Frederick Douglass

History.com Editors (2018). Frederick Douglass. [online] HISTORY. Available at: https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/frederick-douglass. [ accessed: 2 July 2020]

History & Culture. (2020). “This is not a lesson in forgiveness.” Why Frederick Douglass met with his former enslaver. [online] 

Available at: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/2020/12/not-lesson-forgiveness-why-frederick-douglass-met-former-enslaver/.[accessed 2 July 2020]

‌Wikipedia Contributors (2018). Frederick Douglass. [online] Wikipedia. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Douglass. [accessed: 3 July 2020]

General Alexandre Dumas 

General Alexandre Dumas Wikipedia.[Online].Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandre_Dumas [accessed: 12 July 2020]

Harriet Tubman 

Harriet Tubman – History. (29/10/09). .[Online].Available at: at:https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/harriet-tubman [accessed: 13 June 2020]

Harriet Tubman.Ducksters education site. (n.d.).[Online].Available at: https://www.ducksters.com/biography/women_leaders/harriet_tubman.php

[accessed: 13 June 2020]

John Sentamu 

John Sentamu.BBC. (04/07/11).[Online].Available at:http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/people/johnsentamu_1.shtml [accessed: 13 June 2020]

John Sentmu. Wikipedia: .[Online].Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Sentamu [accessed: 13 June 2020]

Joseph Bologne 

Joseph Bologne. Wikipedia.[Online].Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Bologne [accessed: 8 July 2020]

Opera Wire. (2020). Composer Profile: Joseph Bologne, Chevalier de Saint-Georges, Composer of Six Operas. [online] Available at: https://operawire.com/composer-profile-joseph-bologne-chevalier-de-saint-georges-composer-of-six-operas/ [accessed 8 July 2020].

‌Notablebiographies.com. (2013). Joseph Boulogne Chevalier de Saint-George Biography – life, children, name, history, wife, school, young, son, old, born. [online] Available at: https://www.notablebiographies.com/supp/Supplement-Mi-So/Chevalier-de-Saint-George-Joseph-Boulogne.html. [accesseed 8 July 2020]

Katherine Johnson 

Katherine Johnson – Mac Tutor. (n.d.).[Online].Available at: https://mathshistory.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Johnson_Katherine/ 

[accessed: 15 July 2020]

Katherine Johnson Biography .Biography. (10/10/16). .[Online].Available at: Retrieved from https://www.biography.com/scientist/katherine-g-johnson

[accessed: 15 July 2020]

10 Extraordinary facts about Katherine Johnson. the Late Groundbreaking ‘Human Computer’ – The Portalist. (08/02/19).[Online].Available at:

 https://theportalist.com/5-extraordinary-facts-about-katherine-johnson [accessed: 1 August 2020]

Macon Bolling Allen 

Macon Bolling Allen Thought Co.[Online].Available at: https://www.thoughtco.com/macon-bolling-allen-biography-45225. [accessed: 13 September 2020]

Macon Bolling Allen Wikipedia .[Online].Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macon_Bolling_Allen. [accessed: 13 September 2020]

The Church of the Advent. (n.d.). Macon Bolling Allen, 1816-1894. [online] 

Available at: https://www.theadventboston.org/about-us/advent-175/macon-bolling-allen-1816-1894/. [accessed 13 September 2020]

Mae Jemison

‘Mae Jemison. Activity Village.[Online].Available at: https://www.activityvillage.co.uk/mae-jemison. [accessed: 2 September 2020]


Mae Jemison.Britannica Kids.[Online].Available at: https://kids.britannica.com/kids/article/Mae-Jemison/400118#:~:text=Mae%20Jemison%20was%20the%20first,than%20a%20week%20in%201992.&text=born%20on%20October%2017%2C%201956,the%20y

oungest%20of%20three%20children.. [accessed: 3 September 2020]

Mary Seacole 

Mary Seacole . Encyclopaedia Britannica. (n.d.).[Online].Available at:https://www.britannica.com/biography/Mary-Seacole [accessed: 1 October 2020]

The life of Mary Seacole .National Geographic kids. (n.d.).[Online].Available at: https://www.natgeokids.com/uk/discover/history/general-history/mary-seacole/ [accessed: 1 October 2020]

Who was Mary Seacole? – BBC Bitesize. (n.d.).[Online].Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/topics/zns9nrd/articles/zjsxcqt [accessed: 1 October 2020]

Nanny of the Maroons 

Nanny of the Maroons – Jamaica information service. (n.d.).[Online].Available at: https://jis.gov.jm/information/heroes/nanny-of-the-maroons/ [accessed: 3 September 2020]

Queen Nanny of the Maroons – Blackpast.. (01/03/11.[Online].Available at:https://www.blackpast.org/global-african-history/queen-nanny-maroons-1733/ [accessed: 3 September 2020]

5 Essential facts every Jamaican ought to know about Nanny of the Maroons . diG Jamaica. (10/07/17).[Online].Available at:

http://digjamaica.com/m/blog/5-essential-facts-every-jamaican-ought-to-know-about-nanny-of-the-maroons/ [accessed: 3 September 2020]

Rosa Parks 

Rosa Louise Parks Biography – Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute. (n.d.).[Online].Available at:

https://www.rosaparks.org/biography/  [accessed: 14 June 2020] Rosa Parks – Biography. (n.d.).[Online].Available at:  Biography.com/activist/rosa-parks [accessed: 15 June 2020]

Rosa Parks Biography – Biography. (27/02/18).[Online].Available at: https://www.biography.com/activist/rosa-parks [accessed: 15 June 2020]

Sengbe Pieh 

Sengbe Pieh wikipedia.[Online].Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Cinqu%C3%A9 [accessed: 19 June 2020]


Sojourner Truth 

Sojourner Truth. Ducksters.[Online].Available at: https://www.ducksters.com/history/civil_rights/sojourner_truth.php.  [accessed: 19 June 2020]

History.com Editors (2018). Sojourner Truth. [online] HISTORY. Available at: https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/sojourner-truth. [accessed: 20 June 2020]

Biography (2018). Sojourner Truth. [online] Biography. Available at: https://www.biography.com/activist/sojourner-truth.[accessed: 20 June 2020]


Barack Obama

Ducksters.com. (2009). Biography of President Barack Obama for Kids. [online] Available at: https://www.ducksters.com/biography/uspresidents/barackobama.php [24 June 2020]

 Wikipedia Contributors (2018). Barack Obama. [online] Wikipedia. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barack_Obama. [ Access 24 June 2020] 

Barackobama.com. (2017). The Office of Barack and Michelle Obama. [online] Available at: https://barackobama.com/. [25 June 2020]

Biography Online. (n.d.). Barack Obama Biography |. [online] Available at: https://www.biographyonline.net/politicians/american/barack-obama.html [Accessed 8 July 2020].‌

Bernie Grant

100greatblackbritons.com. (n.d.). 100 Great Black Britons – Bernie Grant. [online] Available at: https://100greatblackbritons.com/bios/bernie_grant.html [21 June 2020] 

Wikipedia Contributors (2018). Barack Obama. [online] Wikipedia. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barack_Obama.[accessed 21 June 2020]

Encyclopedia Britannica. (n.d.). Bernie Grant | British politician. [online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Bernie-Grant. [21 June 2020]

Wikipedia. (2020). Bernie Grant. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernie_Grant. [accessed 21 June 2020]

Diane Julie Abbott

Abbott, Diane Julie, (born September 27 1953), MP (Lab) Hackney North and Stoke Newington, since 1987. (2007). Who’s Who. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.u4896 [accessed: 26 June 2020]

www.dianeabbott.org.uk. (n.d.). About Diane. [online] Available at: https://www.dianeabbott.org.uk/about-diane [accessed: 24 June 2020]

Ellen Sirleaf

Ellen Johnson Sirleaf | Biography, Nobel Peace Prize, & Facts. (2019). In: Encyclopædia Britannica. [online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ellen-Johnson-Sirleaf [accessed19 June 2020]

NobelPrize.org. (2011). The Nobel Peace Prize 2011. [online] Available at: https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/peace/2011/johnson_sirleaf/facts/.[ accessed 19 June 2020]

Ignatius Sancho

Sterling, W. (n.d.). Ignatius Sancho: The Composer. [online] Black History Month 2020. Available at: https://www.blackhistorymonth.org.uk/article/section/bhm-heroes/4181/. [accessed: 25 June 2020]

Wikipedia. (2020). Ignatius Sancho. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignatius_Sancho. [accessed:5 September 2020]

Kwame Nkrumah

Britannica Kids. (n.d.). Kwame Nkrumah. [online] Available at: https://kids.britannica.com/students/article/Kwame-Nkrumah/276110. [accessed 27 June 2020]

www.ghanaweb.com. (n.d.). Kwame Nkrumah, Biography. [online] Available at: https://www.ghanaweb.com/person/Kwame-Nkrumah-177 [accessed 27 June 2020]

Wikipedia Contributors (2019). Kwame Nkrumah. [online] Wikipedia. Available at: ttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwame_Nkrumah. [accessed 27 June 2020]

Learie Constantine

Wikipedia. (2021). Learie Constantine. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learie_Constantine [accessed 8 July 2021].

Encyclopedia Britannica. (n.d.). Learie Constantine, Baron Constantine of Maraval and Nelson | Trinidadian official and athlete. [online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Learie-Nicholas-Constantine-Baron-Constantine-of-Maraval-and-Nelson.[ accessed: 8 July 2020]

Michelle Obama

Obama Foundation. (2014). Obama.org. [online] Available at: https://www.obama.org/.[accessed: 18 June 2020]

Wikipedia Contributors (2019). Michelle Obama. [online] Wikipedia. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michelle_Obama. [accessed:18 June 2020]

Anon, (n.d.). * Official Michelle Obama Biography. [online] Available at: https://www.michelleobamabiography.com/.[accessed: 18 June 2020]

Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela Foundation (2018). Biography of Nelson Mandela. [online] Nelsonmandela.org. Available at: https://www.nelsonmandela.org/content/page/biography.[accessed 20 June 2020]

‌Nelson Mandela Foundation (2018). Biography of Nelson Mandela. [online] Nelsonmandela.org. Available at: https://www.nelsonmandela.org/content/page/biography. [accesses: 20 June 2020]

YourDictionary. (2016). What Are Some Nelson Mandela Quick Facts? [online] Available at: https://biography.yourdictionary.com/articles/nelson-mandela-facts.html. [accessed: 20 June 2020]

Octavius V. Catto

Anon, (n.d.). Octavius Catto Biography | General Meade Society. [online] Available at: https://generalmeadesociety.org/octavius-catto-biography/ [accessed: 24 June 2020]

Octavius V. Catto Memorial Fund. (n.d.). Life of O.V. Catto. [online] Available at: http://www.ovcattomemorial.org/ov-catto-life-and-legacy [accessed 24 June 2020].

Olaudah Equiano

Wikipedia Contributors (2019). Olaudah Equiano. [online] Wikipedia. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olaudah_Equiano [accessed 26 June 2020].

Wikipedia Contributors (2019). Olaudah Equiano. [online] Wikipedia. Available at: https://kids.britannica.com/students/article/Olaudah-Equiano/339385 [accessed 26 June 2020]

Ottobah Cugoano

Spartacus Educational. (n.d.). Ottobah Cugoano. [online] Available at: https://spartacus-educational.com/USAScugoano.htm [accessed 19 June 2020]

Goodreads.com. (2019). Ottobah Cugoano known as John Stuart Quotes. [online] Available at: https://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/6577208.Ottobah_Cugoano_known_as_John_Stuart [accessed 14 Sep. 2020].

‌Peters, T. (2017). The Anti-Imperialism of Ottobah Cugoano: Slavery, Abolition, and Colonialism in Thoughts and Sentiments on the Evil of Slaveryxxxx. [online] The CLR James Journal. Available at: https://www.pdcnet.org/clrjames/content/clrjames_2017_0023_43102_0061_0082?file_type=pdf [accessed 8 Jan. 2021].

Prince Hall

Swanson, A. (n.d.). Prince Hall (ca. 1735-1807). [online] Available at: https://www.blackpast.org/african-american-history/hall-prince-c-1735-1807/. [ 17 June 2020]

‌Swanson, A. (n.d.). Prince Hall (ca. 1735-1807). [online] Available at: https://www.blackpast.org/african-american-history/hall-prince-c-1735-1807/.

Sojourner Truth

Ducksters.com. (2019). Biography for Kids: Sojourner Truth. [online] Available at: https://www.ducksters.com/history/civil_rights/sojourner_truth.php.[ accessed 17 June 2020]

Sojourner Truth Memorial Committee. (n.d.). Sojourner Truth Memorial Committee. [online] Available at: https://sojournertruthmemorial.org/.[accessed 17 June 2020]

Valerie Amos

www.100greatblackbritons.com. (n.d.). 100 Great Black Britons – Baroness Valerie Amos. [online] Available at: https://www.100greatblackbritons.com/bios/baroness_valerie_amos.html [accessed 8 August 2020].

‌Valerie Amos, Baroness Amos. (2020, December 29). Retrieved January 8, 2021, from Wikipedia website: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valerie_Amos [ accessed: 8 August 2020]